Hallux valgus in children: causes, symptoms and medical tactics

Hallux valgus in a child is a pathology which entails a reduction of the height of the arch of the foot, accompanied by a curved axis forming the X-shaped position. Experts note that with this diagnosis occurs turn heel and toes to the outside, down the middle division of the foot, the gait becomes awkward.

Do not confuse hallux valgus with varus, which produces the 0-ring position

When hallux valgus is observed at a distance of about 5 cm between the ends of the ankles in a strong grip and straightening of the knees. The toes and heel are moving to the outside.

If the diagnostics detected a strong reduction of the location of foot arch, it is referred to as PLANO-valgus foot deformity in children. It is this kind of disease is the most common.

The causes of pathology

Hallux valgus can be caused by several reasons. You have to identify that the treatment plan accurately match your history. Pathology is divided into congenital and acquired.

Congenital

The doctors shared a few degrees of the disease:

  • easy;
  • secondary;
  • complex.

The most severe are "stop rocking", which is diagnosed at birth. The pathogenesis of such a strong deformation is still not fully established. One of the main reasons is considered to be a malformation.

In congenital hallux valgus, there have been significant intrauterine pathology associated with the form and structure, the location component of the bone of the foot. Usually diagnosed in the first three months after birth.

Dangerous pathology of fetal development is considered a stop condition when the little one appears "stop rocking", "vertical battering RAM." Such violations are diagnosed immediately after birth, and doctors start treatment, rehabilitation, and correction.

What reasons can lead to such disorders during pregnancy?

  • The hereditary factor.
  • The lack of protein, phosphorus.
  • The regimen prescribed by your doctor.
  • Strong stresses, anxiety, dysfunction of the nervous system.
  • External factors.
  • Ecology.
  • Transferred during time of pregnancy infectious and viral diseases.

Purchased

deformation of the foot

Acquired valgus deformity occurs due to imperfect tendinous-ligamentous apparatus, which has not developed to the proper level. Able to strongly influence and deviations in the functioning of the musculoskeletal system.

Identifies deviations closer to the year when the baby starts trying to take the first steps. Most often, the pathology is diagnosed in children who suffer from muscular hypotonia. The reasons may be the following:

  • prematurity;
  • intrauterine hypotrophy;
  • the weakening of the connective tissues;
  • frequent colds, a history of bronchitis, pneumonia, influenza.

An important component of this disease is rickets, which has a direct impact on muscle and bone ligamentous apparatus.

Hallux valgus may also develop through:

  • polyneuropathy;
  • Cerebral palsy;
  • myodystrophy;
  • polio;
  • obesity;
  • mechanical damage of the ligaments and injuries;
  • dysplasia;
  • dislocation of the hips.

Often the disease occurs in children, which is too early to put on the legs that is a heavy load on the spine and feet. The wrong Shoe that is too soft or does not fix the foot, is a contributing factor to disease development.

When muscle tone diminishes, it is the flattening of the arch of the foot due to the severity of body weight, weakened muscles, ligaments of the fingers, they stretch, and the foot is not held in the normal position.

Symptoms of pathology

Almost always the first signs they are closer to 12-month age of the child. In this period the child begins to take the first steps, and the pathology becomes apparent.

So, there are the following symptoms.

  1. While walking, the child steps on the whole foot, just on the inner edge of its base.
  2. Over time, the stop position becomes the X-shaped form.
  3. Evident clumsiness in gait.
  4. A child walks hesitantly.
  5. The patient gets tired very quickly during active games and physical exercises.
  6. Evenings the child complains of pain in the lower extremities, spine.
  7. The long walk the baby can be swelling stop.
  8. Sometimes there are cramps in the calves.
  9. If parents will carefully examine the shoes of the child, you will notice that it wears unevenly, getting worse only from the inside of the sole.

Parents need time to notice the first signs of illness and record to a competent podiatrist, who will prescribe treatment. Otherwise, there could be serious complications.

Diagnosis stop valgus

x-ray

Properly performed diagnostics – the key to successful treatment. Suspected pathology may pediatrician in normal routine physical examination, then the doctor gives a referral to a children's podiatrist will prescribe appropriate measures for the diagnosis and will conduct a full examination of the patient.

The following types of diagnostics:

  • radiography of the foot;
  • planography;
  • podometry;
  • ultrasound examination of the joints.

Plantography gives the possibility to calculate the morphological parameters of the stop, podometry evaluates the level of stress and reveals abnormalities in the early stages.

Methods of treatment of valgus deformity of the child's foot

Doctors argue that treatment should be a complex of various measures aimed at recovery of the patient.

Wearing orthopedic shoes

In hallux valgus, the doctor prescribes the use of special orthopedic shoes. The main factor is considered to be full compliance with the size and shape of the foot of the selected block. Sometimes the shoes are custom made to perfectly fit baby's feet.

The following figure is the stability level of the Shoe product. Must be a small heel or instep, hard back, which fixes the position of the heel. The sides should be the hard part, around five mandatory high and tight in the instep.

If shoes are chosen correctly and completely suitable to the kid, while walking is facilitated by the functioning of the damaged muscles, which makes the disease to develop further.

Plaster bandage

Sometimes need immobilization of the limb using plaster bandages. Process modeling and material selection is carried out by the podiatrist that takes into account such indicators.

  • The curvature of the foot.
  • The level of degree of deviation from normal values.
  • Individual features of the structure of the foot.

In the early stages can apply soft bandaging. If it didn't help and the situation is more running, then resort to gypsum.

The doctor puts a plaster cast, which clearly captures the foot and ankle corrective position. While getting a cast the orthopedic surgeon gently creates the necessary protrusions, indentations.

When applying the plaster, the child will not be affected fingertips.

Worn for about a week, then the doctor corrects valgus manually, and then imposes a special retainer.

Foot bath

To form the arch proper form and to carry out the correction of the foot doctors prescribe young patient special exercises that he must perform at home in the bathroom. You need to purchase a raised Mat where the child will jump up and walk away. These exercises will have a stimulating effect on the sole, increase its sensitivity, reduce the load on the lower limbs.

In the bath it is recommended to add a special coniferous-salt collection, which has a calming and relaxing effect.

Massage

Massage promotes General strengthening, improves muscle tone, improves the mobility of joints, and also has a positive effect on the neurological development of young patients.

The main task of massage – start circulation, providing a tonic effect to the leg muscles.

How to massage?

The same total body massage. Movement can be equal. The abdomen should be massaged, moving clockwise. Then alternately massaged each foot.

You need to put your baby on his stomach and massage the back, ribs.

Pay attention to the knee-elbow, performing the movements for grinding.

Physical therapy

Auxiliary method of treatment is physical therapy. This method allows you to restart metabolic processes in tissues, to improve the flow of nutrients.

So, most often the podiatrist shall appoint:

  • electrophoresis;
  • magnetoterpy;
  • paraffinotherapy.

The course lasts for about 10-14 days, and then for supporting effect of treatments once a week.

Exercise

An integral part of the treatment of valgus is physiotherapy, which includes exercises.

  1. Flexion and extension of the toes.
  2. The rotation of the feet.
  3. Grip with the toes of small items.
  4. Roll the sole of the foot small balls.
  5. Divorce heels.
  6. Mixing socks foot.

Load should not be excessive and to deliver the baby discomfort.

Surgical correction

Radical method of treatment of valgus is surgical intervention. Fortunately, it is required in rare cases. Experts have resorted to the following operational methods.

  • Transplanted tendons.
  • Impose the apparatus of fixing the stop on the outside.
  • Produce arthrodesis taranno-lad yevidnogo joint.

After surgery, the child needs recovery.

Prevention

Experts advise to adhere to prevention methods to protect kids from the disease.

  • To eliminate the load on the feet of infants aged 6-10 months.
  • Ensure adequate nutrition of the baby.
  • To do home gym.
  • Choose the right shoes for this first step.
  • To ensure proper sleep to the baby.

The child's diet should include dishes cooked in with cooking. It is forbidden to give the kids fried, smoked food. Try to include in the diet more vegetables, fruits, meat, as they contain calcium, protein. Let the kids fish, this will ensure the flow of phosphorus in the body.

Drinking plenty of fluids is the key to maintaining water balance in the body. Follow the drinking regime of the child, it will help to increase the elasticity of muscles and improve the metabolic processes in the body.

When choosing shoes, give preference to models with a hard heel and good fixing to the baby's leg didn't move in the Shoe. Remember that the size of the footwear should correspond to the length of the foot, are permissible only in excess of 1.5 inches.

Exercises should be daily, you can do the exercises at home. Make sure that the child showed physical activity on the Playground: jumping, running, climbing the stairs.

Forecast and consequences

If signs of hallux valgus found in time, the greater the probability of full recovery stop. Running form valgus can lead to:

  • osteoarthritis;
  • osteoporosis.;
  • disability, loss of motor activity of the limbs.

Try to implement all recommendations of the doctor in a timely manner to attend the examination. In any case, do not resort to self-medication.

09.08.2018